# What is the section modulus for a rectangular section?

## What is the section modulus for a rectangular section?

**What is the section modulus** (Z) for a **rectangular section**? Explanation: The **modulus** of **section** may be defined as the ratio of moment of inertia to the distance to the extreme fibre. It is denoted by Z. Z= I/y ; For **rectangular section**, I = bd3/12 & y = d/2.

## How do you find the modulus of a hollow rectangle?

The elastic **section modulus** is defined as S = I / y, where I is the second moment of area (or area moment of inertia, not to be confused with moment of inertia) and y is the distance from the neutral axis to any given fibre.

## What is ZX in steel design?

3 **Zx** represents the plastic section. modulus about the X-axis of a shape, where the full cross-section of the shape has yielded.

## How is plastic modulus of I section calculated?

The **plastic section modulus** for a rectangular cross **section** can be determined by multiplying each **section** half (e.g., the shaded area shown in Figure 1.

## What is the difference between plastic and elastic section modulus?

The **plastic section modulus** assumes the entire **section** yields. **Elastic modulus** is the steel **modulus** based on the stress strain curve before yielding. The **plastic modulus** is after yielding. If the failure is considered till the **elastic** zone then we consider **elastic modulus**.

## What is plastic moment resistance?

It is defined as the **moment** at which the entire cross section has reached its yield stress. This is theoretically the maximum bending **moment** that the section can resist - when this point is reached a **plastic** hinge is formed and any load beyond this point will result in theoretically infinite **plastic** deformation.

## How do you find plastic moments?

**Find** the location of the **plastic** neutral surface: Divide the cross sectional area into two areas, At and Ac, such that At = Ac. **Find** the distance, L, between the centroids of the two areas. The **plastic moment** is Mp = σy · L · Ac.

## What is difference between plastic design and elastic design?

**Plastic design** is known to be a displacement-based method in which a pre-selected target drift is used along with yield mechanisms as a part of the **design** criteria. On the other hand, **elastic designs** are usually based on the conventional force based limit state method.

## What is static theorem?

Lower Bound **Theorem** [P] (**Static Theorem**) An external load computed on the basis of an assumed distribution of internal forces, in which. • the forces are bounded by limit values, and • the forces are in equilibrium, is less than or equal to the true collapse load.

## What is difference between plastic hinge and mechanical hinge?

**What is difference between plastic hinge and mechanical hinge**? ... The only **difference** is that **plastic hinges** permit rotation **with a** constant resisting moment equal to the **plastic** moment Mp. At **mechanical hinges**, theresisting moment is equal to zero.

## What is static theorem Mcq?

1. **What is static theorem** ? Explanation: For a given frame and loading if there exists any distribution of bending moments throughout the frame which is both safe and statically admissible with set of load P, then value of load P must be less than or equal to collapse load. 2.

## What is the condition of equilibrium in plastic analysis?

Explanation: When **equilibrium** and plasticity **conditions** of **plastic analysis** are satisfied, an lower bound solution of true ultimate load is obtained.

## What is beam plastic hinge?

A **plastic hinge**, in structural engineering, refers to the deformation of a part of a **beam** wherever **plastic** bending happens. **Hinge** means that having no capability to resist moment. Therefore, a **plastic hinge** behaves like a standard **hinge** - permitting free rotation.

## How many linear displacements can a node have in a 2 dimensional frame beam?

2 displacements

## What is plastic design?

**Plastic design** is a method by which structural elements are selected considering the system's overall ultimate capacity. For safety, the applied loads are in- creased by load factors dictated by appropriate codes. ... **Plastic design** is based on the behavior of steel in the range 2-3.

## What are the common design rules in plastic design?

**Here are 8 important factors to consider to meet your plastic part design goals for a successful production process.**

- Material Considerations. ...
- Radius. ...
- Wall Thickness. ...
- Gate Location. ...
- Draft. ...
- Inclusion of Ribs. ...
- Mold Shrinkage. ...
- Special Features.

## What is plastic theory?

**Plastic Theory** of Structures focuses on the use of **plastic theory** in design and shows how code requirements are related to theoretical considerations. ... Attention is paid to how the collapse load factor of a given structure may be derived, that is, the structure has been analyzed in relation to **plastic** collapse.

## What is collapse load?

The applied **load** at which a structure becomes a mechanism owing to the formation of sufficient plastic hinges for **collapse** to occur. ... ...

## What is the plastic collapse load?

Explanation: The **load** at which sufficient number of **plastic** hinges are formed in a structure such that a **collapse** mechanism is created is called **plastic**-**collapse load** or **plastic**-limit **load**.

## What is collapse mechanism?

Definition - What does **Collapse Mechanism** mean? By inserting a plastic hinge at a plastic limit load into a statically determinate beam, a kinematic **mechanism** permitting an unbounded displacement of the system can be formed. This is known as the **collapse mechanism**.

## What is beam mechanism?

**Beam mechanism**—when vertical loads are applied to **beams** and horizontal loads to columns to form partial collapse **mechanisms** as shown in Figure 5.

## How many plastic hinges are required to convert the structure into a mechanism?

– The number of **plastic hinges required** for failure of statically indeterminate **structure** will be shown to vary from **structure** to **structure**, but never be less than two.

## What is plastic hinge length?

The **plastic hinge length** is defined as the **length** over a seismically swaying column, where flexural moments exceed the yielding capacity. ... The latter is meant to account in a simplistic manner for the effects of bar yielding penetration from the critical section towards both the shear span and the support of columns.

## What is shape factor in plastic analysis?

The **shape factor** of the cross-section **shape** shall be considered which is the ratio of **plastic** to elastic moment and it is different for each **shape**. For example, the **shape factor** for rectangular **shape** is 1.

## Can shape factor be less than 1?

**Shape factors** are often normalized, that is, the value ranges from zero to **one**. ... A **shape factor** equal to **one** usually represents an ideal case or maximum symmetry, such as a circle, sphere, square or cube.

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