What is the kurtosis of a normal distribution?

What is the kurtosis of a normal distribution?

The kurtosis of any univariate normal distribution is 3. It is common to compare the kurtosis of a distribution to this value. Distributions with kurtosis less than 3 are said to be platykurtic, although this does not imply the distribution is "flat-topped" as is sometimes stated.

What kurtosis tells us?

Kurtosis is a measure of whether the data are heavy-tailed or light-tailed relative to a normal distribution. That is, data sets with high kurtosis tend to have heavy tails, or outliers. Data sets with low kurtosis tend to have light tails, or lack of outliers. A uniform distribution would be the extreme case.

Why kurtosis of normal distribution is 3?

The standard normal distribution has a kurtosis of 3, so if your values are close to that then your graph's tails are nearly normal. These distributions are called mesokurtic. Kurtosis is the fourth moment in statistics.

How do you do standard deviation problems?

To calculate the standard deviation of those numbers:

  1. Work out the Mean (the simple average of the numbers)
  2. Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the result.
  3. Then work out the mean of those squared differences.
  4. Take the square root of that and we are done!

How does Standard Deviation determine risk?

Standard deviation is a measure of the risk that an investment will fluctuate from its expected return. The smaller an investment's standard deviation, the less volatile it is. The larger the standard deviation, the more dispersed those returns are and thus the riskier the investment is.

What is the best reason for analyzing risk?

Risk Analysis is a proven way of identifying and assessing factors that could negatively affect the success of a business or project. It allows you to examine the risks that you or your organization face, and helps you decide whether or not to move forward with a decision.

When should risks be avoided?

Risk is avoided when the organization refuses to accept it. The exposure is not permitted to come into existence. This is accomplished by simply not engaging in the action that gives rise to risk. If you do not want to risk losing your savings in a hazardous venture, then pick one where there is less risk.

How do you identify risks?

8 Ways to Identify Risks in Your Organization

  1. Break down the big picture. When beginning the risk management process, identifying risks can be overwhelming. ...
  2. Be pessimistic. ...
  3. Consult an expert. ...
  4. Conduct internal research. ...
  5. Conduct external research. ...
  6. Seek employee feedback regularly. ...
  7. Analyze customer complaints. ...
  8. Use models or software.

What are examples of risks?

Examples of uncertainty-based risks include:

  • damage by fire, flood or other natural disasters.
  • unexpected financial loss due to an economic downturn, or bankruptcy of other businesses that owe you money.
  • loss of important suppliers or customers.
  • decrease in market share because new competitors or products enter the market.

How do you identify financial risks?

Identifying financial risk

  1. Liquidity risk. Liquidity risk is the risk that the entity will not have sufficient funds available to pay creditors and other debts. ...
  2. Funding risk. ...
  3. Interest rate risk. ...
  4. Foreign exchange risk. ...
  5. Commodity price risk. ...
  6. Business or operating risk.

What are the 5 types of risk?

Types of investment risk

  • Market risk. The risk of investments declining in value because of economic developments or other events that affect the entire market. ...
  • Liquidity risk. ...
  • Concentration risk. ...
  • Credit risk. ...
  • Reinvestment risk. ...
  • Inflation risk. ...
  • Horizon risk. ...
  • Longevity risk.