How do you make a superscript in R?

How do you make a superscript in R?

Superscript is “started” by the caret ^ character. Anything after ^ is superscript. The superscript continues until you use a * or ~ character. If you want more text as superscript, then enclose it in quotes.

How do I change the title of a plot in R?

Add titles to a plot in R software

  1. Change main title and axis labels.
  2. title colors.
  3. The font style for the text of the titles.
  4. Change the font size.
  5. Use the title() function.
  6. Customize the titles using par() function.

How do I change the legend position in R?

Control legend position with legend. You can place the legend literally anywhere. To put it around the chart, use the legend. position option and specify top , right , bottom , or left . To put it inside the plot area, specify a vector of length 2, both values going between 0 and 1 and giving the x and y coordinates.

How do I change the title of a legend in R?

Key ggplot2 R functions

  1. p + labs(). Change legend title. ...
  2. p + theme(…). Change legend theme: background color, legend box border, font size and color.
  3. p + scale_x_discrete(limits = c(“2”, “0.

    How do you center a title on a graph in R?

    The default ggplot title alignment is not centered. It is on the left. It's possible to put the title in the middle of the chart by specifying the argument hjust = 0.

    What is a legend in R?

    To add legends to plots in R, the R legend() function can be used. A simplified format of the function is : legend(x, y=NULL, legend, fill, col, bg) x and y : the x and y co-ordinates to be used to position the legend. legend : the text of the legend. fill : colors to use for filling the boxes beside the legend text.

    IS function in R to get number of observation in a data frame?

    The function str() shows you the structure of your data set. For a data frame it tells you: The total number of observations (e.g. 32 car types) The total number of variables (e.g. 11 car features) A full list of the variables names (e.g. mpg , cyl ... )

    How do I put a legend outside the plot in R?

    The simplest way to plot a legend outside a figure in R is to:

    1. First step, make the outer margin at the bottom of the plot large:
    2. Second step, make the multi-panel figure (not shown)
    3. Third step: overlay the entire figure region with a new, single plot.
    4. Result:

    What does Cex in R mean?

    description. cex. number indicating the amount by which plotting text and symbols should be scaled relative to the default. 1=default, 1.

    What is Abline R?

    The R function abline() can be used to add vertical, horizontal or regression lines to a graph. A simplified format of the abline() function is : abline(a=NULL, b=NULL, h=NULL, v=NULL, ...) a, b : single values specifying the intercept and the slope of the line. h : the y-value(s) for horizontal line(s)

    How do you plot a line in R?

    The basic plot command The plot command accepts many arguments to change the look of the graph. Here, we use type="l" to plot a line rather than symbols, change the color to green, make the line width be 5, specify different labels for the x and y axis, and add a title (with the main argument).

    How do you plot a regression line in R?

    A scatter plot can be created using the function plot(x, y). The function lm() will be used to fit linear models between y and x. A regression line will be added on the plot using the function abline(), which takes the output of lm() as an argument. You can also add a smoothing line using the function loess().

    How do you plot points in R?

    To add new points to an existing plot, use the points() function. The points function has many similar arguments to the plot() function, like x (for the x-coordinates), y (for the y-coordinates), and parameters like col (border color), cex (point size), and pch (symbol type).

    How do you plot multiple lines on a graph in R?

    Multiple curves on the same plot Create the first plot using the plot() function. For the subsequent plots, do not use the plot() function, which will overwrite the existing plot. Instead, each one of the subsequent curves are plotted using points() and lines() functions, whose calls are similar to the plot() .

    How do I plot two plots in R?

    Combining Plots

    1. R makes it easy to combine multiple plots into one overall graph, using either the. ...
    2. With the par( ) function, you can include the option mfrow=c(nrows, ncols) to create a matrix of nrows x ncols plots that are filled in by row. ...
    3. The layout( ) function has the form layout(mat) where.

    What library is melt in R?

    reshape package

    How do I install a package in R?

    Download and install a package (you only need to do this once). To use the package, invoke the library(package) command to load it into the current session....Adding Packages

    1. Choose Install Packages from the Packages menu.
    2. Select a CRAN Mirror. ...
    3. Select a package. ...
    4. Then use the library(package) function to load it for use.

    What is melting data in R?

    Melting in R programming is done to organize the data. It is performed using melt() function which takes dataset and column values that has to be kept constant. Using melt(), dataframe is converted into long format and stretches the data frame. Syntax: melt(data, na.rm = FALSE, = “value”)

    How do I reverse a Dataframe in R?

    The transpose (reversing rows and columns) is perhaps the simplest method of reshaping a dataset. Use the t() function to transpose a matrix or a data frame. In the latter case, row names become variable (column) names.

    What does T () do in R?

    t() function transposes a matrix or data.

    How do you gather a function in R?

    To use gather() , pass it the name of a data frame to reshape. Then pass gather() a character string to use for the name of the “key” column that it will make, as well as a character string to use as the name of the value column that it will make.

    How do I reverse a dataset in R?

    Rotating or transposing R objects That is, you transpose the rows and columns. You simply use the t() command. The result of the t() command is always a matrix object.