What is transom in curtain wall?

What is transom in curtain wall?

Transom or horizontal rails are horizontal members on the curtain wall panel. The mullions or vertical rails are anchored to the edge slab or beam. These are mainly involved in supporting the dead weight of the curtain wall. In conventional or sticky curtain wall system each system has to be placed one after the other.

What is curtain wall in box culvert?

Curtain Wall Reinforcement: The wall which is constructed below the box in a Box Culvert is called as Curtain wall or pin wall. This wall provides stability to the box.

Why wing wall is provided?

Wing walls provide smooth entry of water into the bridge site and provide support and protect the embankment. Wing walls can serve as buttresses to support walls. They can also be purely decorative.

What is the difference between retaining wall and diaphragm wall?

A retaining wall that retains soil on the backside and water on the frontside is called a seawall or a bulkhead. Diaphragm walls can reach depths of more than 100m below the surface.

What is the purpose of diaphragm wall?

Diaphragm walls are underground structural elements commonly used as retention systems and permanent foundation walls. They can also be used as groundwater barriers.

How does a diaphragm wall work?

A diaphragm wall is a structural concrete wall constructed in a deep trench excavation, either cast in situ or using precast concrete components. ... The excavation stability is maintained by the use of a drilling fluid, usually a bentonite slurry.

What is a secant wall?

A Secant Piled Wall is a retaining wall constructed for ground retention prior to excavation. The wall is formed by constructing alternating primary (female) and secondary (male) piles where the secondary piles partially cut into either side of the primary piles in order to form a continuous impervious structure.

What crack width limit would you use to design a diaphragm wall?

Through the theory of diaphragm wall design analysed, the allowable width of structure crack wlim = 0.

What is a diaphragm wall?

A diaphragm wall (slurry wall) is a reinforced cast-in-place continuous concrete wall. The construction includes the excavation of a trench under the protection of a support suspension (i.e. a thixotropic slurry such as bentonite mud for example) designed to temporarily stabilize the trench wall.

What is bentonite slurry?

Bentonite slurry is one of the most common excavation fluid used in constructing diaphragm wall. Bentonite clay (in powder form) and water are combined in a colloidal mixer and clay particles bond to each other and set to form a gel when left to stand for a period of time.

What is the purpose of bentonite?

Bentonite clay adsorbs -- it attracts particles, like dirt on your skin. It also absorbs -- it takes in a lot of water. It's used for face masks, and it's also what makes pet litter clump.

What is pH value of bentonite?


What is a slurry used for?

A slurry- is a combination of starch (usually cornstarch, flour, potato starch or arrowroot) and cold water which is mixed together and used to thicken a soup or sauce. If the starch is solely added directly to a hot liquid, the starch granules cannot disperse easily and clumps form.

Why is slurry so dangerous?

The most dangerous is hydrogen sulphide - extremely poisonous to people and animals. A high concentration knocks out your sense of smell, causing difficulty in breathing, then disorientation. After only a few breaths, collapse and death can occur.