What is the form and function of the endoplasmic reticulum?

What is the form and function of the endoplasmic reticulum?

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in biology, a continuous membrane system that forms a series of flattened sacs within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and serves multiple functions, being important particularly in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins .

What is the shape of endoplasmic reticulum?

Structure of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Cisternae are tubular in structure, and form a three-dimensional polygonal network. They are about 50 nm in diameter in mammals and 30 nm in diameter in yeast. ER sheets, on the other hand, are membrane-enclosed, two-dimensional flattened sacs that extend across the cytoplasm.

What are the main function of endoplasmic reticulum?

The endoplasmic reticulum can either be smooth or rough, and in general its function is to produce proteins for the rest of the cell to function. The rough endoplasmic reticulum has on it ribosomes, which are small, round organelles whose function it is to make those proteins.

What is the importance of rough endoplasmic reticulum?

The function of the rough ER is to provide a place so ribosomes can produce proteins, and proteins are one of the most important things in a cell. Rough ER is the organelle that reads the DNA instructions to make the proteins. Also, the rough ER is involved in the transportation of proteins to the Golgi apparatus.

What are the two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

The rough ER, studded with millions of membrane bound ribosomes, is involved with the production, folding, quality control and despatch of some proteins. Smooth ER is largely associated with lipid (fat) manufacture and metabolism and steroid production hormone production. It also has a detoxification function.

What is the structure and function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), meshwork of fine disklike tubular membrane vesicles, part of a continuous membrane organelle within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that is involved in the synthesis and storage of lipids, including cholesterol and phospholipids, which are used in the production of new cellular ...

What is difference between the smooth and rough ER?

Rough ER looks like sheets or disks of bumpy membranes while smooth ER looks more like tubes. Rough ER is called rough because it has ribosomes attached to its surface. ... Smooth ER (SER) acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of lipids and steroids.

What is the meaning of rough ER?

rough endoplasmic reticulum

How do the nucleus and ER work together?

The nucleus houses the cell's DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins and ribosomes. Mitochondria are responsible for ATP production; the endoplasmic reticulum modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids; and the golgi apparatus is where the sorting of lipids and proteins takes place.

What does Golgi body do?

A Golgi body, also known as a Golgi apparatus, is a cell organelle that helps process and package proteins and lipid molecules, especially proteins destined to be exported from the cell.

Does Golgi body have DNA?

Eukaryotic cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and numerous membrane-enclosed organelles (e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus) not found in prokaryotes. ... The nucleus contains most of the genetic material (DNA) of the cell. Additional DNA is in the mitochondria and (if present) chloroplasts.

What is the difference between endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi body?

Both are equally important cell organelles. The rough endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes proteins due to the presence of ribosomes and the golgi apparatus modifies these proteins to perform specific functions.

What is the role of ribosomes and Golgi body?

The major function of ribosomes is the production of proteins and that of the Golgi apparatus is the modification and packaging of those proteins. They are usually present in high number in cells that secrete digestive enzymes as they are responsible for the production of those enzymes.

What is the importance of nucleus?

The nucleus controls and regulates the activities of the cell (e.g., growth and metabolism) and carries the genes, structures that contain the hereditary information. Nucleoli are small bodies often seen within the nucleus. The gel-like matrix in which the nuclear components are suspended is the nucleoplasm.

Are ribosomes present in Golgi bodies?

The Golgi apparatus gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. ... Because the Golgi complex absorbs vesicles from the rough ER, you will also find ribosomes in those pancake stacks.

What is the structure of Golgi body?

The Golgi apparatus, also called Golgi complex or Golgi body, is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells (cells with clearly defined nuclei) that is made up of a series of flattened stacked pouches called cisternae. It is located in the cytoplasm next to the endoplasmic reticulum and near the cell nucleus.

Which cells do not have ribosomes?

Cell Structures : Example Question #7 Explanation: Prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells in that they lack any membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. Instead, prokaryotic cells simply have an outer plasma membrane, DNA nucleoid structure, and ribosomes.

How are Golgi bodies formed?

Cisternae Maturation Model shows that proteins from the ER join to make parts of the Golgi, so the Golgi can be made. ... In summary, packages of processing enzymes and new proteins originating in the ER fuse together to form the Golgi and as the proteins are processed and mature, the next Golgi compartment is created.

What does Golgi complex look like?

The Golgi apparatus (GA), also called Golgi body or Golgi complex and found universally in both plant and animal cells, is typically comprised of a series of five to eight cup-shaped, membrane-covered sacs called cisternae that look something like a stack of deflated balloons.

What would happen if there were no Golgi apparatus?

Complete answer: If there were no Golgi bodies, the proteins in cells would float around without direction. ... The Golgi apparatus processes proteins for secretions that contain enzymes that attach sugar monomers to proteins. If the Golgi apparatus is not present the packaging and transport of materials would cease.

Why is a cell compared to a city?

The nucleus controls all of the activities of the cell as city hall controls all the activities in of the city. 2. The cell membrane is a thin, flexible envelope that surrounds the cell. ... The cell membrane controls what goes into and out of the cell as the city limits control what goes in and out of the city.

How does a cell represent a city?

A Cell is Like A City! There are many similarities between a cell's structure and a city. 1. Nucleus = City Hall: they are both the controlling forces in the cell/city. ... Nuclear Envelope = City Hall Fence with Security Guard: they both protect the control center, by allowing materials in and out.

What can a cell be compared to?

Cells are Like Cars You can compare the windshield and windows to plasma membranes, since they protect the inside of the car from invaders like insects and dirt. Cars need power to drive, and this happens when fuel, converts to energy in the engine, much like mitochondria creating ATP.

What do plant cells have that animals cells do not?

Animal cells have centrosomes (or a pair of centrioles), and lysosomes, whereas plant cells do not. Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts, plasmodesmata, and plastids used for storage, and a large central vacuole, whereas animal cells do not.

What are 3 differences between plants and animals?

PlantsAnimals
Plants cells have cell walls and other structures differ from those of animals.Animal cells do not have cell walls and have different structures than plant cells
Plants have either no or very basic ability to sense.Animals have a much more highly developed sensory and nervous system.